Library

When navigating the complexities of EPR, finding valuable resources can be a challenge. As a solution, we offer a comprehensive library of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR. Resources are available in multiple languages and formats and address different regions. To ensure that the library remains updated with the latest insights on EPR, we also welcome submissions through the form below! Every submission undergoes a thorough screening process before being added to the collection.

The views and opinions of the listed publications do not necessarily reflect the positions of the Global Action Partnership for EPR or official policy positions of the governments involved.


Title
Publisher
Region
Year
Language
Format
Extended Producer Responsibility: Basic Facts and Key Principles

The Global Action Partnership for EPR, GIZ, the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the PREVENT Waste Alliance, OECD, the UNEP and WWF collaborated to produce a new policy paper. The paper provides a digestible overview of EPR, its impact and potential applications. It underscores common principles that have been linked with successful EPR schemes and lays out structured guidance for their policy design and implementation.

read more
GAP for EPR
Global
2024
English
Website
EPR Toolbox

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. It contains detailed training materials on EPR, practical country examples and a set of FAQs.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
Global
2020
English
Website
EPR: A Study on the Role of Producer Responsibility Organisations

Plastic pollution is a global problem that requires a comprehensive approach to address all stages of the plastic life cycle. It has reached alarming levels worldwide, with millions of tonnes of plastic entering the oceans each year. The case study highlights the initial EPR initiatives in the Philippines and provides insights into the economic, environmental, and social aspects of EPR implementation.

read more
WWF Philippines
Global
2024
English
PDF
EPR: Updated Guidance for Efficient Waste Management

This updated review of the guidelines looks at some of the new design and implementation challenges and opportunities of EPR policies, takes into account recent efforts undertaken by governments to better assess the cost and environmental effectiveness of EPR and its overall impact on the market, and addresses some of the specific issues in emerging market economies.

read more
OECD
Global
2016
English, French
PDF
Economic impacts to consumers from EPR regulation in the consumer packaged goods sector

This paper reviews the estimate of the packaging cost component of US expenditure on food (a subset of the consumer packaged goods sector), as computed by the USDA based on economic input-output analysis. It uses this estimate as a foundation, combined with food price elasticities and the analysis of expected burden-sharing between suppliers and consumers of the increase in packaging costs due to EPR requirements to construct an orders-of-magnitude estimate of the maximum increase in grocery bills that an average US consumer should expect as a result of a nationwide adoption of EPR regulation.

read more
CU Academic Commons: Bose, Satyajit
USA
2022
English
PDF
MOOC Going Circular: The EPR Guide

This course will introduce you to the concept and key elements of EPR schemes. Beyond that, it is a practical guide for the introduction of EPR, particularly in developing countries.

read more
WWF
Global
2020
English, German
Online Course
Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Waste Pickers

This document is intended for those within waste picker organizations, civil society, government or the private sector interested in or working on EPR policies. This document is meant to help fill gaps in EPR analysis to better address the question of waste picker integration into EPR, and spark deeper debate on the subject, as well as to inform the design of EPR systems that are more equitable, just and inclusive. To achieve this, the paper identifies potential benefits, challenges and enabling conditions for waste pickers’ inclusion in EPR schemes, based on an analysis of existing mandatory and voluntary systems, and legislation.

read more
WIEGO: Chandran, Pinky
Global
2022
English
PDF
Assessing the Role and Impact of EPR in the Prevention of Marine Plastic Packaging Litter

This report critically assesses how EPR affects marine plastic (packaging) litter generation and how EPR schemes can be adapted to increase their respective mitigation effect in the future. To provide such insights, this study highlights the role of EPR within the broader waste management structures and policies in which EPR is embedded, as well as its unique characteristics, and examines what factors impact marine plastic litter.

read more
GIZ
Global
2022
English
PDF
Statement and Position Paper: EPR - a Necessary Part of the Solution to Packaging Waste and Pollution

For the first time, more than 150 leading businesses and other organisations from across the packaging value chain, publicly recognise that without EPR, packaging collection and recycling is unlikely to be meaningfully scaled and tens of millions of tonnes of packaging will continue to end up in the environment every year.

read more
Ellen MacArthur Foundation
Global
2021
English
Website
Chapter 6 - Extended Producer Responsibility: Lessons for Realizing and Implementing a Circular Economy for Plastics in Asia

The publication "Prospects for Transitioning from a Linear to Circular Economy in Developing Asia" features a chapter about EPR implementation in Asia. The paper overviews circular economy principles and provides policy recommendations to promote the transition to circularity. In chapter 6, it focuses on plastic packaging in emerging economies of Asia due to increasing concerns related to plastic pollution.

read more
Asian Development Bank: Sachdeva, Anurodh
Global
2022
English
PDF
New Aspects of EPR: EPR to Additional Product Groups and Challenges Throughout the Product Lifecycle

This paper presents a discussion of relatively novel applications of EPR to additional product groups (plastic products beyond packaging, textiles, construction materials, and food waste) and to environmental impacts (design considerations, pollution and littering) that occur throughout the product lifecycle. Based on select case studies, it evaluates the successes and challenges that early adopters of applying the EPR approach to new product groups or additional environmental impact categories have experienced. It reviews the arguments for further application of EPR, possible limitations and provides guidance on when and how to best apply an EPR.

read more
ENV Working Papers (OECD)
Global
2023
English
PDF
Policy Brief - EPR for Packaging Waste in Vietnam

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a key concept for ‘closing the loop’ in the packaging value chain, in line with circular economy principles. It is based on the principle that whoever introduces packaging or packaged goods into a country’s market remains responsible for it until the end of the packaging life cycle, including after disposal. The EPR Policy Brief is a framework document for decision-makers to address the key principles and share international experiences on EPR mechanisms and legal frameworks.

read more
Rethinking Plastics
Asia
2020
English
PDF
15 Basic Principles: Establishing an Effective EPR Scheme for Packaging

To help governments, the private sector and civil society stakeholders to develop effective EPR schemes, WWF has developed this set of basic principles for designing and implementing effective EPR frameworks. These principles will serve as a benchmark for stakeholders to ensure that current EPR schemes are on the right track towards a circular economy and provide guidance for future policy designs.

read more
WWF
Global
2020
English
PDF
Policy Brief - EPR for Packaging Waste in Vietnam [Vietnamese]

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a key concept for ‘closing the loop’ in the packaging value chain, in line with circular economy principles. It is based on the principle that whoever introduces packaging or packaged goods into a country’s market remains responsible for it until the end of the packaging life cycle, including after disposal. The EPR Policy Brief is a framework document for decision-makers to address the key principles and share international experiences on EPR mechanisms and legal frameworks.

read more
Rethinking Plastics
Asia
2020
Vietnamese
PDF
New Aspects of EPR: Extending Producer Responsibility to Additional Product Groups and Challenges Throughout the Product Lifecycle

Based on select case studies, this report evaluates the successes and challenges that early adopters of applying the EPR approach to new product groups or additional environmental impact categories have experienced. It reviews the arguments for further application of EPR, possible limitations and provides guidance on when and how to best apply an EPR.

read more
OECD: Brown, Andrew; Laubinger, Frithjof; Börkey, Peter
Global
2023
English
PDF
Restoring the Incentives for Eco-Design in Extended Producer Responsibility: The Challenges for Eco-Modulation

Based on primary, secondary, and grey literature, this article characterizes challenges faced by eco-modulation if it is to restore the incentives for eco-design. These include weak linkages to environmental outcomes, fees too low to induce changes in materials or design, lack of adequate data and ex post policy evaluation, and implementation that differs across jurisdictions.

read more
Lifset, Reid; Kalimo, Harri; Jukka, Antti; Kautto, Petrus; Miettinen, Mirella
Global
2023
English
PDF
Rewarding Recycling: Learnings From the World's Highest-Performance Deposit Return Systems

In "Rewarding Recycling: Learnings from the World's Highest-Performing Deposit Return Systems", TOMRA discusses: What effective deposit return systems deliver, the four key principles and twelve element high-performing deposit return systems share, and dozens of case studies on real-world implementation of deposit return policy.

read more
TOMRA
Global
2023
English
PDF
EPR Unpacked: A Policy Framework for a Circular Economy

EPR is a transformative policy principle that can ensure the full circularity of packaging materials, and in our new white paper, EPR Unpacked: A Policy Framework for a Circular Economy, we explore the elements necessary to support its implementation, and much more. This paper also serves as a guide for policymakers designing or developing EPR schemes, offering a multi-dimensional perspective and practical insights to help achieve the best results.

read more
TOMRA
Global
2023
English
PDF
EPR Toolbox in Spanish (Caja de Herramientas REP)

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. It contains detailed training materials on EPR, practical country examples and a set of FAQs.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
Global
2020
Spanish
PDF
Reducing Resource Extraction and Use: Producer Responsibility for the Circular Economy

The report proposes an innovative policy solution to address the impacts of products on climate change, pollution, biodiversity and social inequity – all of which are driven by overconsumption. This report builds on traditional extended producer responsibility (EPR) policy, which focuses on end-of-life waste management, to better incentivise producers to minimise material use and move towards a more circular economy.

read more
Zero Waste Scotland
Global
2023
English
PDF
Unraveling the Complexity of Extended Producer Responsibility Policy Mix Design, Implementation, and Transfer Dynamics in the European Union

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) for packaging was introduced to achieve closed-loop end-of-life management and design for recyclability and is an integral part of the European Union's (EU) environmental policy mix. This article links previously isolated components of EPR and studies the design, implementation, and transfer of EPR systems in 25 European countries through a developmental approach. It extends EPR theory by systematizing EPR design features at three hierarchical levels: system scope, responsibility allocation, and instrument type.

read more
Pruess, Jakob T. (in: Journal of Industrial Ecology)
Europe
2023
English
PDF
Why are Biobased and Biodegradable Plastic not Part of the Solution to Reduce Plastic Waste?

. In a dilemma between ecological perspectives on single-use plastic and the convenience that this type of plastic packaging offers, biobased and biodegradable plastic have been discussed as an alternative to fossil-based plastics for quite some time. Environmental benefits are often attributed to biobased and biodegradable plastic because “bio” is understood to mean “environmentally friendly”. This report assesses and analyses the substitution of conventional plastic with biodegradable or biobased plastic.

read more
Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Löw, Clara; Prakash, Siddharth; Stuber-Rousselle, Kevin
Global
2021
English, Bahasa, Thai
PDF
Pricing Transparency in the Recycled Plastics Supply Chain in India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam

Recycled plastics markets in India and Southeast Asia face multiple demand- and supply-linked bottlenecks along the value chain, including a lack of transparency in the pricing of plastic waste feedstock and recycled plastics. The report “Pricing Transparency in the Recycled Plastics Supply Chain in India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam” and the accompanying Recycled Plastics Policy and Pricing Tool aim to address this issue. The resources available on this page focus on the domestic plastic recycling pricing dynamics in India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam

read more
The Circulate Initiative
Asia
2023
English
Website
Material Choices for Environment-Friendly Packaging Design

This report is based on a literature review of several LCA studies conducted to analyze the environmental impact of different packaging materials and alternatives, focusing on five packaging applications: shopping bags, beverage containers, beverage cups, take-away food packaging and meat packaging. This report is not based on own LCA modelling, but rather synthesizes the information and results generated in a number of LCA studies.

read more
Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Stuber-Rousselle, Kevin; Prakash, Siddharth; Löw, Clara
Global
2021
English, Bahasa, Thai
PDF
Design-for-Recycling (D4R) – State of Play

The transition towards circular economy includes the rethinking of product design to include considerations for end-of-life treatment and recyclability. As a means to steer the behaviour at the end-of-life in an early stage of the product’s life, the design phase, various initiatives have developed design-for-recycling guidelines for specific polymers and plastic applications.

read more
Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ;
Global
2021
English, Bahasa, Thai
Website
Design for Recycling (D4R) Guidelines for Prioritised Plastic Packaging in Indonesia

the programme of ‘Collaborative Actions for Single-Use Plastic Prevention in Southeast Asia’ (CAP SEA) intends to develop guidelines for design for recycling (D4R) for three selected groups of plastic packaging in Indonesia. The guidelines aim to enable relevant stakeholders to consider a recycled-friendly packaging design, starting with developing potential D4R criteria for three-priority packaging.

read more
Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Moh. Nurhadi; S.T.; M.Ling; Prof. Dr. Ir. Budi Widianarko; Maya Virdayanti Anggraini, S.T.; Kristanto Irawan Putra
Indonesia
2023
English
PDF
Considerations for Packaging Classification

Globally, packaging waste has increasingly become an environmental problem. The problem is the large volume, the high resource intensity in production, the low recycling and recovery rates and the extent of litter caused by packaging. But packaging is, of course, not meant to be a ‘waste’. In the first place, it has important functions and is very useful e.g. for product transport, storage and for consumer information. Primarily, packaging is made up of valuable resources and does not have to reach its end-of life after a single use.

read more
Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Michalscheck, Mirja; Löw, Clara; Manhart, Andreas; Prakash, Siddharth
Global
2021
English, Bahasa, Thai
PDF
EPR Country Report Chile

This country report focuses on the development of a legal framework for an EPR system for packaging in Chile.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
South America
2020
English
PDF
EPR Country Report South Africa

This report elaborates on the development from a voluntary to a mandatory EPR scheme for packaging in South Africa.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
Africa
2021
English
PDF
EPR Country Report Republic of Korea

This report presents the Republic of Korea’s EPR system for packaging as an Asian role model.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
Asia
2020
English
PDF
EPR Country Report Germany

This report describes how Germany’s EPR system for packaging waste went from a single PRO to multiple PROs with a register.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
Europe
2020
English
PDF
EPR Country Report Tunisia

This report contains a case study on  the state-run ECO-LEF system for managing packaging waste in Tunisia.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
Africa
2020
English
PDF
EPR Toolbox in Chinese | EPR 工具包

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance / Rethinking Plastics
Asia
2021
Chinese
PDF
EPR Toolbox in Vietnamese | Bộ công cụ EPR

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance / Rethinking Plastics
Asia
2021
Vietnamese
PDF
Recycled Content in Plastic Material with Focus on PET, HDPE, LDPE, PP

The transition towards circular economy includes the optimisation of manufacturing processes in terms of decrease of primary resource consumption shares but increase of secondary raw material shares. This report presents an overview over some general aspects of recycling, the technical state of the art with respect to (1) recycled plastic content in products, (2) limiting factors, and (3) options for action to boost secondary plastic use in the production process.

read more
Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Löw, Clara; Manhart, Andreas; Prakash, Siddharth
Global
2021
English, Bahasa, Thai
Website
Integration of Plastics Impact Evaluation into ESG Assessments 

The report outlines how relevant plastic performance indicators can be developed and integrated into existing ESG analysis frameworks, taking the companies' position in the value chain, performance on current plastic action, and preparedness for transitioning into accont. It is the first time that a detailed guidance has been provided on how to integrate plastic into environmental, social, and governance (ESG) related performance assessment of companies.

read more
WWF & Accenture: Laura Rheinbay, Arushi Garg, Friedrich Schäkel (Support)
Global
2021
English
Website
Reducing Plastic Pollution and Creating a True Circular Economy for Plastics through EPR

This study starts with an overview of the current organization and performance of EPR schemes for plastic packaging in Norway, followed by details of the current legal framework for these EPR schemes. It continues with providing an overview of EPR schemes for plastic packaging in comparable countries to Norway, highlighting advantages and weaknesses of the different models. It then assesses the efficiency of the current legal framework for EPR for plastic packaging and identifies the barriers that hinder the transition to a true circular economy.

read more
WWF, Deloitte Norway
Europe
2020
English
PDF
EPR on Plastic Products and Packaging for Industries in Indonesia

This report intends to strengthen business readiness, both in the sense of EPR implementation and in the transition towards a more collaborative, fair, and impactful circular waste management system for all involved actors, by reviewing and assessing the current progress of EPR development and circular economy direction in Indonesia. This report also seeks to provide key insights into overcoming barriers encountered by producers and recommendations for identifying opportunities in the upstream and downstream business of establishing a mandatory EPR scheme.

read more
WWF Indonesia; WWF Malaysia; South Pole Carbon Asset Management Ltd.
Asia
2022
English
PDF
EPR for Single-Use Plastics and Packaging Waste Streams: An Assessment for Kenya

Cognisant of pollution as one of the planetary threats to human survival,the Kenyan government is awake to the detrimental impact pollution poses especially from single use plastics and packaging material.In this report, a rationale is drawn between the role of stakeholders in the enactment and implementation of the proposed extended producer responsibility regulations in Kenya.The report further suggests alignment and compliance to existing environmental laws and legal frameworks in Kenya taking into considerations the role of the informal sector at the downstream interventions for waste management.

read more
WWF Kenya
Africa
2022
English
PDF
EPR for Plastic Packaging in South Africa - A Synthesis Report on Policy Recommendations

This research was undertaken to accelerate and support the transition to a circular plastics economy in South Africa by providing recommendations for a mandatory EPR policy for plastic packaging to the Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment (DFFE) who has the regulatory mandate in South Africa. While the DFFE-led EPR regulation process deals with packaging more broadly, this project focused specifically on plastic packaging.

read more
WWF South Africa; Arp, Reinhardt
Africa
2021
English
PDF
Current Situation and Solutions to Promote Plastic Waste Recycling in Viet Nam

The study “Research and investigation on recycling situation and recommendation on measures to accelerate plastic waste recycling in Viet Nam“ was implemented in 2022 with the aim of supporting and promoting policy enforcement, knowledge sharing, and exchange of experiences on EPR. The research has indicated opportunities on current policy, domestic potential in consumption and recycling capacity, technology as well as corresponding challenges for plastic recycling in Viet Nam.

read more
WWF, The Institute of Strategy and Policy on Natural Resources and Environment (ISPONRE)
Asia
2022
English
PDF
Readiness of SMEs in the Plastics Industry in Implementation of EPR in Viet Nam

In collaboration with WWF-Viet Nam, through the project "Mitigating marine plastic debris in Viet Nam" and to assist MONRE in development of the draft Decree, ISPONRE conducted a research on SMEs in the plastic industry about their readiness to comply with regulations on EPR. The study evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of SMEs that are manufacturing and importing, using packaging and recycling plastic in the country in the context of the soon-to-be-implemented EPR regulations.

read more
WWF, The Institute of Strategy and Policy on Natural Resources and Environment (ISPRONRE)
Asia
2021
English
PDF
Assessment of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for Plastic Packaging Waste in Viet Nam

Viet Nam’s plastic consumption is growing by double-digit numbers annually (16% to 18% per year from 2010 to 2015). Despite tangible improvements, significant volumes of plastic remain uncollected and are burned openly or littered into the environment, damaging the terrestrial and marine environment. The report “Assessment of Extended Producer Responsibility for plastic packaging waste in Viet Nam" provides findings meant to inform policy makers and relevant stakeholders engaging in Viet Nam’s transition towards a more sustainable waste management.

read more
WWF; Löhle, S.; Brinkmann, J.; Wagner, J.; Le, H.A.
Asia
2021
English
PDF
Deposit-Refund Systems and the Interplay with Additional Mandatory EPR Policies

The interplay of a Deposit Refund Systems (DRS) and other mandatory EPR policy instruments can lead to synergies, as it can improve the quality and quantity of recycling, enable reuse systems and incentivise eco-design. This report identifies key insights that can guide the design and implementation of a DRS and its role in a broader policy mix including other mandatory EPR policies.

read more
OECD: Laubinger, Frithjof; Brown, Andrew; Dubois, Maarten; Börkey, Peter
Global
2022
English
PDF
Modulated fees for EPR schemes

Fee modulation, changing fees paid by producers in a collective EPR scheme based on product design, can provide producers with stronger design incentives, but adds complexity to the system. The paper defines a classification for fee modulation (by criteria and methodology) and discusses potential challenges and opportunities. It concludes with key policy insights that can further stimulate this emerging policy approach.

read more
OECD: Laubinger, Frithjof; Brown, Andrew; Dubois, Maarten; Börkey, Peter
Global
2021
English
PDF
EPR and the Impact of Online Sales

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) systems aim to make producers responsible for the environmental impacts of their products throughout the product chain, from design to the end-of-life phase. This report focuses on free-riding of producers or retailers, which the fast expansion of online sales in recent years has been exacerbating. These sellers often have no physical, legal entity in the country where the consumer resides, and are not registered with national or local EPR schemes.

read more
Hilton, Mark; Sherrington, Chris; McCarthy, Andrew; Börkey, Peter (OECD)
Global
2019
English
PDF
EPR Toolbox in Thai | ชุดเครื่องมือ EPR

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance / Rethinking Plastics
Asia
2022
Thai
PDF
EPR Toolbox in Bahasa Indonesia

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

read more
PREVENT Waste Alliance
Asia
2020
Bahasa Indonesia
PDF

Extended Producer Responsibility: Basic Facts and Key Principles

Publisher: GAP for EPR
Region: Global
Year: 2024
Language: English
Format: Website

The Global Action Partnership for EPR, GIZ, the Ellen MacArthur Foundation, the PREVENT Waste Alliance, OECD, the UNEP and WWF collaborated to produce a new policy paper. The paper provides a digestible overview of EPR, its impact and potential applications. It underscores common principles that have been linked with successful EPR schemes and lays out structured guidance for their policy design and implementation.

read more

EPR Toolbox

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: Global
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: Website

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. It contains detailed training materials on EPR, practical country examples and a set of FAQs.

read more

EPR: A Study on the Role of Producer Responsibility Organisations

Publisher: WWF Philippines
Region: Global
Year: 2024
Language: English
Format: PDF

Plastic pollution is a global problem that requires a comprehensive approach to address all stages of the plastic life cycle. It has reached alarming levels worldwide, with millions of tonnes of plastic entering the oceans each year. The case study highlights the initial EPR initiatives in the Philippines and provides insights into the economic, environmental, and social aspects of EPR implementation.

read more

EPR: Updated Guidance for Efficient Waste Management

Publisher: OECD
Region: Global
Year: 2016
Language: English, French
Format: PDF

This updated review of the guidelines looks at some of the new design and implementation challenges and opportunities of EPR policies, takes into account recent efforts undertaken by governments to better assess the cost and environmental effectiveness of EPR and its overall impact on the market, and addresses some of the specific issues in emerging market economies.

read more

Economic impacts to consumers from EPR regulation in the consumer packaged goods sector

Publisher: CU Academic Commons: Bose, Satyajit
Region: USA
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

This paper reviews the estimate of the packaging cost component of US expenditure on food (a subset of the consumer packaged goods sector), as computed by the USDA based on economic input-output analysis. It uses this estimate as a foundation, combined with food price elasticities and the analysis of expected burden-sharing between suppliers and consumers of the increase in packaging costs due to EPR requirements to construct an orders-of-magnitude estimate of the maximum increase in grocery bills that an average US consumer should expect as a result of a nationwide adoption of EPR regulation.

read more

MOOC Going Circular: The EPR Guide

Publisher: WWF
Region: Global
Year: 2020
Language: English, German
Format: Online Course

This course will introduce you to the concept and key elements of EPR schemes. Beyond that, it is a practical guide for the introduction of EPR, particularly in developing countries.

read more

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Waste Pickers

Publisher: WIEGO: Chandran, Pinky
Region: Global
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

This document is intended for those within waste picker organizations, civil society, government or the private sector interested in or working on EPR policies. This document is meant to help fill gaps in EPR analysis to better address the question of waste picker integration into EPR, and spark deeper debate on the subject, as well as to inform the design of EPR systems that are more equitable, just and inclusive. To achieve this, the paper identifies potential benefits, challenges and enabling conditions for waste pickers’ inclusion in EPR schemes, based on an analysis of existing mandatory and voluntary systems, and legislation.

read more

Assessing the Role and Impact of EPR in the Prevention of Marine Plastic Packaging Litter

Publisher: GIZ
Region: Global
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

This report critically assesses how EPR affects marine plastic (packaging) litter generation and how EPR schemes can be adapted to increase their respective mitigation effect in the future. To provide such insights, this study highlights the role of EPR within the broader waste management structures and policies in which EPR is embedded, as well as its unique characteristics, and examines what factors impact marine plastic litter.

read more

Statement and Position Paper: EPR - a Necessary Part of the Solution to Packaging Waste and Pollution

Publisher: Ellen MacArthur Foundation
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English
Format: Website

For the first time, more than 150 leading businesses and other organisations from across the packaging value chain, publicly recognise that without EPR, packaging collection and recycling is unlikely to be meaningfully scaled and tens of millions of tonnes of packaging will continue to end up in the environment every year.

read more

Chapter 6 - Extended Producer Responsibility: Lessons for Realizing and Implementing a Circular Economy for Plastics in Asia

Publisher: Asian Development Bank: Sachdeva, Anurodh
Region: Global
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

The publication "Prospects for Transitioning from a Linear to Circular Economy in Developing Asia" features a chapter about EPR implementation in Asia. The paper overviews circular economy principles and provides policy recommendations to promote the transition to circularity. In chapter 6, it focuses on plastic packaging in emerging economies of Asia due to increasing concerns related to plastic pollution.

read more

New Aspects of EPR: EPR to Additional Product Groups and Challenges Throughout the Product Lifecycle

Publisher: ENV Working Papers (OECD)
Region: Global
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

This paper presents a discussion of relatively novel applications of EPR to additional product groups (plastic products beyond packaging, textiles, construction materials, and food waste) and to environmental impacts (design considerations, pollution and littering) that occur throughout the product lifecycle. Based on select case studies, it evaluates the successes and challenges that early adopters of applying the EPR approach to new product groups or additional environmental impact categories have experienced. It reviews the arguments for further application of EPR, possible limitations and provides guidance on when and how to best apply an EPR.

read more

Policy Brief - EPR for Packaging Waste in Vietnam

Publisher: Rethinking Plastics
Region: Asia
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: PDF

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a key concept for ‘closing the loop’ in the packaging value chain, in line with circular economy principles. It is based on the principle that whoever introduces packaging or packaged goods into a country’s market remains responsible for it until the end of the packaging life cycle, including after disposal. The EPR Policy Brief is a framework document for decision-makers to address the key principles and share international experiences on EPR mechanisms and legal frameworks.

read more

15 Basic Principles: Establishing an Effective EPR Scheme for Packaging

Publisher: WWF
Region: Global
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: PDF

To help governments, the private sector and civil society stakeholders to develop effective EPR schemes, WWF has developed this set of basic principles for designing and implementing effective EPR frameworks. These principles will serve as a benchmark for stakeholders to ensure that current EPR schemes are on the right track towards a circular economy and provide guidance for future policy designs.

read more

Policy Brief - EPR for Packaging Waste in Vietnam [Vietnamese]

Publisher: Rethinking Plastics
Region: Asia
Year: 2020
Language: Vietnamese
Format: PDF

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) is a key concept for ‘closing the loop’ in the packaging value chain, in line with circular economy principles. It is based on the principle that whoever introduces packaging or packaged goods into a country’s market remains responsible for it until the end of the packaging life cycle, including after disposal. The EPR Policy Brief is a framework document for decision-makers to address the key principles and share international experiences on EPR mechanisms and legal frameworks.

read more

New Aspects of EPR: Extending Producer Responsibility to Additional Product Groups and Challenges Throughout the Product Lifecycle

Publisher: OECD: Brown, Andrew; Laubinger, Frithjof; Börkey, Peter
Region: Global
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

Based on select case studies, this report evaluates the successes and challenges that early adopters of applying the EPR approach to new product groups or additional environmental impact categories have experienced. It reviews the arguments for further application of EPR, possible limitations and provides guidance on when and how to best apply an EPR.

read more

Restoring the Incentives for Eco-Design in Extended Producer Responsibility: The Challenges for Eco-Modulation

Publisher: Lifset, Reid; Kalimo, Harri; Jukka, Antti; Kautto, Petrus; Miettinen, Mirella
Region: Global
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

Based on primary, secondary, and grey literature, this article characterizes challenges faced by eco-modulation if it is to restore the incentives for eco-design. These include weak linkages to environmental outcomes, fees too low to induce changes in materials or design, lack of adequate data and ex post policy evaluation, and implementation that differs across jurisdictions.

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Rewarding Recycling: Learnings From the World's Highest-Performance Deposit Return Systems

Publisher: TOMRA
Region: Global
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

In "Rewarding Recycling: Learnings from the World's Highest-Performing Deposit Return Systems", TOMRA discusses: What effective deposit return systems deliver, the four key principles and twelve element high-performing deposit return systems share, and dozens of case studies on real-world implementation of deposit return policy.

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EPR Unpacked: A Policy Framework for a Circular Economy

Publisher: TOMRA
Region: Global
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

EPR is a transformative policy principle that can ensure the full circularity of packaging materials, and in our new white paper, EPR Unpacked: A Policy Framework for a Circular Economy, we explore the elements necessary to support its implementation, and much more. This paper also serves as a guide for policymakers designing or developing EPR schemes, offering a multi-dimensional perspective and practical insights to help achieve the best results.

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EPR Toolbox in Spanish (Caja de Herramientas REP)

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: Global
Year: 2020
Language: Spanish
Format: PDF

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. It contains detailed training materials on EPR, practical country examples and a set of FAQs.

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Reducing Resource Extraction and Use: Producer Responsibility for the Circular Economy

Publisher: Zero Waste Scotland
Region: Global
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

The report proposes an innovative policy solution to address the impacts of products on climate change, pollution, biodiversity and social inequity – all of which are driven by overconsumption. This report builds on traditional extended producer responsibility (EPR) policy, which focuses on end-of-life waste management, to better incentivise producers to minimise material use and move towards a more circular economy.

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Unraveling the Complexity of Extended Producer Responsibility Policy Mix Design, Implementation, and Transfer Dynamics in the European Union

Publisher: Pruess, Jakob T. (in: Journal of Industrial Ecology)
Region: Europe
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) for packaging was introduced to achieve closed-loop end-of-life management and design for recyclability and is an integral part of the European Union's (EU) environmental policy mix. This article links previously isolated components of EPR and studies the design, implementation, and transfer of EPR systems in 25 European countries through a developmental approach. It extends EPR theory by systematizing EPR design features at three hierarchical levels: system scope, responsibility allocation, and instrument type.

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Why are Biobased and Biodegradable Plastic not Part of the Solution to Reduce Plastic Waste?

Publisher: Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Löw, Clara; Prakash, Siddharth; Stuber-Rousselle, Kevin
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English, Bahasa, Thai
Format: PDF

. In a dilemma between ecological perspectives on single-use plastic and the convenience that this type of plastic packaging offers, biobased and biodegradable plastic have been discussed as an alternative to fossil-based plastics for quite some time. Environmental benefits are often attributed to biobased and biodegradable plastic because “bio” is understood to mean “environmentally friendly”. This report assesses and analyses the substitution of conventional plastic with biodegradable or biobased plastic.

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Pricing Transparency in the Recycled Plastics Supply Chain in India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam

Publisher: The Circulate Initiative
Region: Asia
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: Website

Recycled plastics markets in India and Southeast Asia face multiple demand- and supply-linked bottlenecks along the value chain, including a lack of transparency in the pricing of plastic waste feedstock and recycled plastics. The report “Pricing Transparency in the Recycled Plastics Supply Chain in India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam” and the accompanying Recycled Plastics Policy and Pricing Tool aim to address this issue. The resources available on this page focus on the domestic plastic recycling pricing dynamics in India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam

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Material Choices for Environment-Friendly Packaging Design

Publisher: Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Stuber-Rousselle, Kevin; Prakash, Siddharth; Löw, Clara
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English, Bahasa, Thai
Format: PDF

This report is based on a literature review of several LCA studies conducted to analyze the environmental impact of different packaging materials and alternatives, focusing on five packaging applications: shopping bags, beverage containers, beverage cups, take-away food packaging and meat packaging. This report is not based on own LCA modelling, but rather synthesizes the information and results generated in a number of LCA studies.

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Design-for-Recycling (D4R) – State of Play

Publisher: Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ;
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English, Bahasa, Thai
Format: Website

The transition towards circular economy includes the rethinking of product design to include considerations for end-of-life treatment and recyclability. As a means to steer the behaviour at the end-of-life in an early stage of the product’s life, the design phase, various initiatives have developed design-for-recycling guidelines for specific polymers and plastic applications.

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Design for Recycling (D4R) Guidelines for Prioritised Plastic Packaging in Indonesia

Publisher: Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Moh. Nurhadi; S.T.; M.Ling; Prof. Dr. Ir. Budi Widianarko; Maya Virdayanti Anggraini, S.T.; Kristanto Irawan Putra
Region: Indonesia
Year: 2023
Language: English
Format: PDF

the programme of ‘Collaborative Actions for Single-Use Plastic Prevention in Southeast Asia’ (CAP SEA) intends to develop guidelines for design for recycling (D4R) for three selected groups of plastic packaging in Indonesia. The guidelines aim to enable relevant stakeholders to consider a recycled-friendly packaging design, starting with developing potential D4R criteria for three-priority packaging.

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Considerations for Packaging Classification

Publisher: Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Michalscheck, Mirja; Löw, Clara; Manhart, Andreas; Prakash, Siddharth
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English, Bahasa, Thai
Format: PDF

Globally, packaging waste has increasingly become an environmental problem. The problem is the large volume, the high resource intensity in production, the low recycling and recovery rates and the extent of litter caused by packaging. But packaging is, of course, not meant to be a ‘waste’. In the first place, it has important functions and is very useful e.g. for product transport, storage and for consumer information. Primarily, packaging is made up of valuable resources and does not have to reach its end-of life after a single use.

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EPR Country Report Chile

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: South America
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: PDF

This country report focuses on the development of a legal framework for an EPR system for packaging in Chile.

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EPR Country Report South Africa

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: Africa
Year: 2021
Language: English
Format: PDF

This report elaborates on the development from a voluntary to a mandatory EPR scheme for packaging in South Africa.

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EPR Country Report Republic of Korea

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: Asia
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: PDF

This report presents the Republic of Korea’s EPR system for packaging as an Asian role model.

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EPR Country Report Germany

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: Europe
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: PDF

This report describes how Germany’s EPR system for packaging waste went from a single PRO to multiple PROs with a register.

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EPR Country Report Tunisia

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: Africa
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: PDF

This report contains a case study on  the state-run ECO-LEF system for managing packaging waste in Tunisia.

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EPR Toolbox in Chinese | EPR 工具包

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance / Rethinking Plastics
Region: Asia
Year: 2021
Language: Chinese
Format: PDF

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

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EPR Toolbox in Vietnamese | Bộ công cụ EPR

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance / Rethinking Plastics
Region: Asia
Year: 2021
Language: Vietnamese
Format: PDF

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

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Recycled Content in Plastic Material with Focus on PET, HDPE, LDPE, PP

Publisher: Exportinitiative für Umweltschutz, GIZ - Löw, Clara; Manhart, Andreas; Prakash, Siddharth
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English, Bahasa, Thai
Format: Website

The transition towards circular economy includes the optimisation of manufacturing processes in terms of decrease of primary resource consumption shares but increase of secondary raw material shares. This report presents an overview over some general aspects of recycling, the technical state of the art with respect to (1) recycled plastic content in products, (2) limiting factors, and (3) options for action to boost secondary plastic use in the production process.

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Integration of Plastics Impact Evaluation into ESG Assessments 

Publisher: WWF & Accenture: Laura Rheinbay, Arushi Garg, Friedrich Schäkel (Support)
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English
Format: Website

The report outlines how relevant plastic performance indicators can be developed and integrated into existing ESG analysis frameworks, taking the companies' position in the value chain, performance on current plastic action, and preparedness for transitioning into accont. It is the first time that a detailed guidance has been provided on how to integrate plastic into environmental, social, and governance (ESG) related performance assessment of companies.

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Reducing Plastic Pollution and Creating a True Circular Economy for Plastics through EPR

Publisher: WWF, Deloitte Norway
Region: Europe
Year: 2020
Language: English
Format: PDF

This study starts with an overview of the current organization and performance of EPR schemes for plastic packaging in Norway, followed by details of the current legal framework for these EPR schemes. It continues with providing an overview of EPR schemes for plastic packaging in comparable countries to Norway, highlighting advantages and weaknesses of the different models. It then assesses the efficiency of the current legal framework for EPR for plastic packaging and identifies the barriers that hinder the transition to a true circular economy.

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EPR on Plastic Products and Packaging for Industries in Indonesia

Publisher: WWF Indonesia; WWF Malaysia; South Pole Carbon Asset Management Ltd.
Region: Asia
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

This report intends to strengthen business readiness, both in the sense of EPR implementation and in the transition towards a more collaborative, fair, and impactful circular waste management system for all involved actors, by reviewing and assessing the current progress of EPR development and circular economy direction in Indonesia. This report also seeks to provide key insights into overcoming barriers encountered by producers and recommendations for identifying opportunities in the upstream and downstream business of establishing a mandatory EPR scheme.

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EPR for Single-Use Plastics and Packaging Waste Streams: An Assessment for Kenya

Publisher: WWF Kenya
Region: Africa
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

Cognisant of pollution as one of the planetary threats to human survival,the Kenyan government is awake to the detrimental impact pollution poses especially from single use plastics and packaging material.In this report, a rationale is drawn between the role of stakeholders in the enactment and implementation of the proposed extended producer responsibility regulations in Kenya.The report further suggests alignment and compliance to existing environmental laws and legal frameworks in Kenya taking into considerations the role of the informal sector at the downstream interventions for waste management.

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EPR for Plastic Packaging in South Africa - A Synthesis Report on Policy Recommendations

Publisher: WWF South Africa; Arp, Reinhardt
Region: Africa
Year: 2021
Language: English
Format: PDF

This research was undertaken to accelerate and support the transition to a circular plastics economy in South Africa by providing recommendations for a mandatory EPR policy for plastic packaging to the Department of Forestry, Fisheries and the Environment (DFFE) who has the regulatory mandate in South Africa. While the DFFE-led EPR regulation process deals with packaging more broadly, this project focused specifically on plastic packaging.

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Current Situation and Solutions to Promote Plastic Waste Recycling in Viet Nam

Publisher: WWF, The Institute of Strategy and Policy on Natural Resources and Environment (ISPONRE)
Region: Asia
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

The study “Research and investigation on recycling situation and recommendation on measures to accelerate plastic waste recycling in Viet Nam“ was implemented in 2022 with the aim of supporting and promoting policy enforcement, knowledge sharing, and exchange of experiences on EPR. The research has indicated opportunities on current policy, domestic potential in consumption and recycling capacity, technology as well as corresponding challenges for plastic recycling in Viet Nam.

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Readiness of SMEs in the Plastics Industry in Implementation of EPR in Viet Nam

Publisher: WWF, The Institute of Strategy and Policy on Natural Resources and Environment (ISPRONRE)
Region: Asia
Year: 2021
Language: English
Format: PDF

In collaboration with WWF-Viet Nam, through the project "Mitigating marine plastic debris in Viet Nam" and to assist MONRE in development of the draft Decree, ISPONRE conducted a research on SMEs in the plastic industry about their readiness to comply with regulations on EPR. The study evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of SMEs that are manufacturing and importing, using packaging and recycling plastic in the country in the context of the soon-to-be-implemented EPR regulations.

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Assessment of Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) for Plastic Packaging Waste in Viet Nam

Publisher: WWF; Löhle, S.; Brinkmann, J.; Wagner, J.; Le, H.A.
Region: Asia
Year: 2021
Language: English
Format: PDF

Viet Nam’s plastic consumption is growing by double-digit numbers annually (16% to 18% per year from 2010 to 2015). Despite tangible improvements, significant volumes of plastic remain uncollected and are burned openly or littered into the environment, damaging the terrestrial and marine environment. The report “Assessment of Extended Producer Responsibility for plastic packaging waste in Viet Nam" provides findings meant to inform policy makers and relevant stakeholders engaging in Viet Nam’s transition towards a more sustainable waste management.

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Deposit-Refund Systems and the Interplay with Additional Mandatory EPR Policies

Publisher: OECD: Laubinger, Frithjof; Brown, Andrew; Dubois, Maarten; Börkey, Peter
Region: Global
Year: 2022
Language: English
Format: PDF

The interplay of a Deposit Refund Systems (DRS) and other mandatory EPR policy instruments can lead to synergies, as it can improve the quality and quantity of recycling, enable reuse systems and incentivise eco-design. This report identifies key insights that can guide the design and implementation of a DRS and its role in a broader policy mix including other mandatory EPR policies.

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Modulated fees for EPR schemes

Publisher: OECD: Laubinger, Frithjof; Brown, Andrew; Dubois, Maarten; Börkey, Peter
Region: Global
Year: 2021
Language: English
Format: PDF

Fee modulation, changing fees paid by producers in a collective EPR scheme based on product design, can provide producers with stronger design incentives, but adds complexity to the system. The paper defines a classification for fee modulation (by criteria and methodology) and discusses potential challenges and opportunities. It concludes with key policy insights that can further stimulate this emerging policy approach.

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EPR and the Impact of Online Sales

Publisher: Hilton, Mark; Sherrington, Chris; McCarthy, Andrew; Börkey, Peter (OECD)
Region: Global
Year: 2019
Language: English
Format: PDF

Extended producer responsibility (EPR) systems aim to make producers responsible for the environmental impacts of their products throughout the product chain, from design to the end-of-life phase. This report focuses on free-riding of producers or retailers, which the fast expansion of online sales in recent years has been exacerbating. These sellers often have no physical, legal entity in the country where the consumer resides, and are not registered with national or local EPR schemes.

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EPR Toolbox in Thai | ชุดเครื่องมือ EPR

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance / Rethinking Plastics
Region: Asia
Year: 2022
Language: Thai
Format: PDF

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

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EPR Toolbox in Bahasa Indonesia

Publisher: PREVENT Waste Alliance
Region: Asia
Year: 2020
Language: Bahasa Indonesia
Format: PDF

The EPR Toolbox is a collection of internationally relevant knowledge on the topic of EPR for packaging. Its aim is to promote knowledge exchange and enhance development of EPR systems worldwide.

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